The church of the Ascension of the Virgin Mary, standing on the highest point of Masaryk Square, is the oldest and most valuable monumental building of our town. The original appearance of the Roman building, which most likely originated from the end of the 12th or the beginning of the 13th century, was not retained. The only evidence of this style is the foundation of the south side of the presbytery and the core of the tower with a recessed Romanesque capital on the first floor. The early Gothic building from the turn of the 14th century is suggested only by the Gothic ribbing in the presbytery, and window and door fragments, found under the stucco in 1984 and preserved to this day. In the Middle Ages, the entire object was surrounded by a wall with bastions, and formed a so-called church fortress that was intended to protect the inhabitants of the rich settlement from military danger.
In 1401, the church was taken by the robber Keyzolt and his group and the church was plundered during the fight. During the Hussite wars in 1449, the church was burnt down and plundered by Jan from Boskovice. During the siege of Brno by the Swedish in the Thirty Years War, the church was totally devastated. Other fires are remembered from the years 1667 and 1733, when almost the entire village, including the vicarage and the church, were burnt. The ruined church was rebuilt during 1753–1755 in the Baroque style, with the help of a scholastic from Olomouc and Šlapanice´s priest, Gianini. Only the presbytery remained in the original Gothic style. Two years later it burnt down again, therefore, the current appearance of the church originated in 1757.
The Baroque altar, with the painting of the Ascension of the Virgin Mary by Johann End linger, who also did the painting of Saint Michal on the side altar, has remained to this day. Saint Michal was the patron of the choir of the Literary Brotherhood of Saint Michal, founded by the parish church in 1617.
The first organ was acquired by the dean, Jan Holoubek (1819–1895). The instrument was bought with the financial bequeathal of Vincenc Vzácný (died April 4, 1861), who left 1000 pieces of gold for this purpose. The current organ originates from Krnov and was installed in February 1973.
In 1887, the church tower was heightened to 36 meters and supplied with the typical bulb-shaped copula and a tower clock from the abolished castle in Podolí. In 1919, the church was roofed with clay tiles. From 1832, the church was surrounded by an old cemetery, where the year 1565 can be found on one of the tombstones.
An expensive, full renovation of the church was carried out between November 1989 and August 1990.
On Masaryk Square, nos. 104/18 and 103/20, in the vicinity of the church, stands the one story building of the former scholasticate, currently a museum and coffee shop. Upon closer inspection, an observer will realize that it is one building, separated into two by a gutter and the different shades of the color yellow used on the facade, and these days, two fully separate parts. Entering into the part of the Brno Museum through the little door built into the big wooden gate, you can enjoy one of the regularly held exhibitions.
The origins of the building go back to the turn of the 14th century. From its beginning, it belonged to the Olomouc metropolitan canonry at St.Václav, and the first documented scholastic, i.e. the fourth canon of Olomouc, was Pert, in 1234. Following Petr, more than 70 canons took turns at the local estate. Some examples of the most significant scholastics are Petr Vavřinců during the years 1357–1380 – personal chaplain of Karel IV; mister Petr from Všeruby in the years 1389–1408, chaplain of Václav IV; Jan Jakub Wakher from Wakhenfeld in 1607, lawyer and court counsel of Rudolf II; Jan Jeroným Piccinardi in the years 1626–1638 – Moravian provincial medic; Vilém Vojtěch Libštejnský from Kolovraty in 1706, who, two years later, built a spectacular Baroque granary. Unfortunately, it was to yield, together with the courtyard, stables and the garden in mid-seventies of the 20th century to the development of a new school. Another scholastic who should not be forgotten is Ferdinand Řehoř, Duke Gianini, who was active here in the years 1748–1757. During this period, the local church was reconstructed in the Baroque style.
Originally, the scholasticate mill was also a part of the entire property, which was located at the site of the later Skřepkův mill (which also no longer exists). However, it was freed from scholasticate duties during the years 1612–1615, under the scholastic Jan Berger from Berg. The current appearance of the scholasticate building dates from that era. This is proved by the Renaissance sandstone plaque placed on the face of the scholasticate building above the entrance into the former vicarage. The three following symbols are modeled into the deep relief:
The first symbol is placed in the centre of the upper section of the plaque. In a rich rollwork cartouche, a quartered oval crest is laid. In its first and fourth sections are 6 spikes, situated four above two, and in the second and third sections is a female eagle with a six-pointed star on its chest. A Latin cross with a crown is constructed on the crest. A bishop´s hat floats above the crest, from which a braided rope hangs, forming 6 knots on each side, corresponding with the bishop´s rank. Thus, this is the symbol of the Olomouc bishopric, used since 1588.
The second symbol is placed in the lower section of the plaque, on the heraldic right side. An oval crest is placed in a rich rollwork cartouche, in which there are 6 spikes, situated four above two. The field of the crest is a damascened floral motif. This is most likely a symbol of the Kroměříž collegiate canonry.
The third symbol is placed in the lower left side. A square Gothic crest is once again placed in a rich rollwork cartouche. In its first and fourth sections is a nightingale bird with its wings spread above a triple-peak. The second and fourth sections are divided crossways into four sections. A tablet with a simple heart sits in the centre of the whole crest. On the crest, a crowned jousting helmet with coverings faces directly out is placed. The jewel of the crest is a hand holding a Turkish sword – an old symbol of the squires from Berg. Above the symbol floats a hat with a braided rope forming three knots on each side that are falling down, corresponding with the canon´s rank. The displayed symbol belonged to Jan Berger z Berg, who was the Olomouc scholastic in 1613.
The year 1613 is in the lower part of the plaque between the second and third symbols, which dates back to the time of the scholasticate’s construction. The workmanship of the trade and art on the symbol plaque proves the very high quality of the sculpture work.
The crest of the scholasticate granary was positioned in the gable of the spectacular Baroque granary, which was demolished prior to the building of the new elementary school. Currently, it is deposited at the local museum. This Gothic crest is placed in a rich rollwork cartouche made from fine sandstone. Below, separated from the crest by the winged head of a Baroque angel, the following sign is placed:
LIEBSTEINSKI: S: R: I: COMES
ECCLESIAE OLOMVCENSIS PRAELATVS
SCHOLASTICVS: HVC AEDIFICAT
On the Gothic crest, a female eagle is placed with a band ending in clover leaves, bearing on its chest a crowned Austrian tablet. The displayed symbol is the armorial bearing of Kolovrats-Libštejns. It was placed on the newly founded granary by the scholastic Vilém Libštejn from Kolovraty, according to the sign above. The chronogram states that this happened in 1708.
The Renaissance appearance of the building has been preserved to this day; however, the interiors were renovated in the Baroque style at the beginning of the 18th century. The vicarage used to be in the left part of the building until 1904, when the parishioners built a new Pseudo-renaissance building on the opposite side of the square, no. 546/9. The last Olomouc scholastic was ThDr. Stanislav Zela, during the years 1944–1948.
In 1949, the building and its premises was nationalized and passed over to the city council, which undertook all the necessary repairs so that it could be used as a museum. The museum itself has already been in Šlapanice since 1934 but, until then, did not have sufficient premises. During the years 1955–1956 the roofs, stucco and entrance hall were repaired, and the museum became the Regional museum of history for the surrounding areas of Brno. Over time, in the years 1962–1965, it became a branch of the Regional museum in Ivančice. The lack of upkeep and the weight of the new school that was built on the hill above the scholasticate contributed to the fact that the building had to be closed in the late eighties, due to its state of disrepair and, therefore, all the collections became inaccessible as well. These were later transported to the depository in Tišnov-Předklášteří, wherefrom they are slowly starting to return. During the years 1992–1995, a major renovation of the building was undertaken with funds from the City of Šlapanice, and today it again serves as a Brno Museum (formally the Regional museum for the areas surrounding Brno). It also serves as the headquarters.
The first documented report of this building is from 1605, and can be found in the book of statutes. A record of Petr Pekař purchasing this estate by from Pavel Čapatý, who settled here before the year 1590 can be found in this book. Other owners were the knight Hendrych Hoslauer from Hoslau, whose descendants, the Bilskýs and Odkoleks, owned the house for more than eighty years; others were the provincial attorney Eustach Johan Beker and Jan Antonín Khar, a jeweler from Brno. Various owners took turns until 1735, when the house was purchased by František Antonín, Duke Contessi. In the second half of the 18th century, the Sladký family lived on the estate. The next important owner was the executive manager of the Agricultural stock sugar refinery in Šlapanice, and postal shipping clerk Alois Tauschinský, who bought the house on March 14, 1867. The Tauschinský family and their descendents, the Pollachs, owned the property until 1945, when it was declared a German confiscate, and it was passed over to the city council.
The building served as a house to live in for many years. A pub, “At the black eagle”, was opened here at the end of the 18th century; in 1869 Mr. Tauschinský established it as a post office. From 1906, the doctor’s office of general practitioner Dr. Pollach was here. In 1945, it became the residence of city council, and a year later, a laundry room, a local library, and museum of history (that was already here since 1934) were established in the courtyard. It was a police station, and then again, a post office. In 1962, it became a ceremonial hall, and the former barn was rebuilt to serve as a fire hall. Today, the building is the residence of the city office and a post office.
The current city office was originally a farm house that was later changed into a Pseudo-renaissance two-story burgess house. In 1994, the building was renovated, attic space was made into an additional story and a side wing was added. The façade was repaired, and a glass entrance was added with an information channel display.
The Orel house
This building, no. 223/2, with its front visual side turned towards the church, defines the southern edge of Masaryk square. It was made in the newest architectural style in that time for the farming villages and towns of the back-country of Brno. An inseparable part of the historic core of our city – these are the words used to describe the Orel house on the front page of a newspaper from the Historian group in Šlapanice Budín.For what purposes has the city of Šlapanice used this building during its history? Primarily as a farm, mentioned as early as at the beginning of the 17th century, and associated with the Smolík family in the mid 18th century. Other than for agricultural uses, there is also a mention of it being the merchant shop of František Weber in 1857. His son, Ferdinand, added a pub to the shop, where several Czech patriotic groups used to meet (The reading-entertainment clubs, Svatopluk, Kosmák, Slavia, etc.).
In 1927, the entire object was purchased by a group established for the building and upkeep of the Orel house. It then served as a hall of the Organization of Czechoslovaks’ Peoples’ Party Orel for more than twenty years. Its union was already founded in Šlapanice in 1913. After the February revolution, the Orel was joined with Sokol, the pub was liquidated, and the building served as a residence for educational institutions. For many years it was not maintained, and during the nineties, when returned to the original owners, the expenses required for restoration were very high. Today, it again serves the purpose of a cultural, educational and sports centre.
The preserved historical record of the activities of the Czechoslovakian Orel states:
Czechoslovakian Orel is a cultural-physical educational organization, in other words, religiously-national. For this reason, it takes part in its own business, as well as all national celebrations, if full tolerance of belief is guaranteed. What is stated in the previous short outline is hardly the exhaustive range of the organization’s activities. Long, intensive work would be necessary for a detailed processing of the organization´s chronicle, which is very interesting. Nonetheless, even what we briefly state here is sufficient to evaluate of the importance of the association, not only on behalf of the Orel, but also the nation. Let’s not name those who deserve merit in its development, these are spoken of in the records of reports and meetings. We ask the public to accept this document with the equal love and sincerity used to write it. Twenty years of intensive and useful work is behind us. To all former and current workers, sisters and brothers, Orel´s thanks belong to you!
We faithfully follow our goal! God Bless!Organization council
The name of František Dempír (1879–1958), a religion teacher, is linked with the activity of Orel’s organization. He was a very active member, who served as both a producer and a choirmaster.
“Town hall” restaurant
The “town hall” on Kalvodova Street has a rich history. It is the second oldest restaurant in Šlapanice. The former town hall, which originated in the second half of the 16th century, was a single-story building. Only the basement of this building has been preserved to this day. It originally served as a local jail, with two little windows near the ceiling - one into the street and the other into the courtyard. Shackles were imbedded in the wall up until the 19th century. Offenders were held here and questioned; the trial took place in the presence of the reeve and the aldermen, either in the town hall or in the adjacent building, where there was also a blacksmith shop. The former rough grind mill in Starý dvůr is also indicated as a third possible place of the court of justice. If the crime deserved capital punishment, the convict was beheaded in the area of the current park on Brněnská Street, near the conciliation stone and the sculpture of the Red Army soldier. The gallows were in Hraničky. The executioner would come from Brno. Some examples of those sentenced to the highest punishment are Justina Svobodová for strangling her illegitimate child (1683), Jiřík Hermanovský, who stole from a church in Velké Meziříčí (1720), and Matyáš Koblížek and Václav Hrubý for robbery and assault near Líšeň (1734). During the 1843 renovation, the town hall gained a second floor; however, it only lasted for a little over sixty years: in 1905, upon a decision by the city council, it was torn down.
The town archive, important town documents, land books, and privileges granted by authorities used to be stored in the town hall. For the city, the most important was the market law that permitted the town to hold fairs. It was granted in 1563 (it is generally believed that this was the same time as the granting of the juridical and capital rights, which allowed the sentencing of death to offenders). The reeve used to meet with the aldermen in the town hall to discuss official matters. The reeve was appointed by authorities, but it was also possible to hereditarily purchase this position. This is what the Zeman family did, and they were the longest to keep the office (from 1748 until 1848). After the abolishment of serfdom, the position of reeve was also abolished, and his duties were assumed by an installed mayor, together with councilors.
Furthermore, a bar where all the farm people used to come for entertainment and drink was located here. This place had the right to tap since 1592. The first inn keeper documented in writing was Bernard Bulla, in 1780. Once in a while the building served for other purposes as well – even before 1707, toll was collected here from the market men; in the second half of the 19th century, before the building of the new school, a teachers’ aid with his wards found asylum here; at the turn of thirties of the 20th century, the building was used as an atelier by the photographer Ladislav Zástava. It was also used for boxing for. A short time in 1933, the building was purchased from the city by Alois Hrabálek. In the forties it functioned as a savings bank.
In 1950, the town hall was lapsed to the Sokol organization. It was not touched by the sad fate of many other business premises, but just renamed the Peoples’ coffee shop, as part of the battle against alcoholism. In 1962, the façade was decorated, according to the current fashion, by a neon ‘Restaurant – Lunchroom’ sign. Currently, the lit letters on the face of the building have been replaced by a sign that says TOWN HALL, but the building is still serving the same purpose as it did under the neon billboard.
The history of the building goes all the way back to 1753, when Jindřich Kajetán Blümegen, the administrator of Moravia and Silesia in those days, became the owner of the so-called Schwanenfeld courtyard. Shortly after its purchase, he had a one-story building in the Rococo style built that he used as his country house. Some other historical sources do mention though, that the courtyard was purchased in 1744, and that the building of the chateau began in 1750. Nevertheless, it is clear from both sources that the building was founded sometime in the second half of the 18th century. Blümegen´s governor’s office was located in nearby Brno. The chateau in Šlapanice in those days was luxuriously furnished and visited all year round by Blümegen´s guests. Also, the adjoining park could pride itself with beautiful full-grown trees and a finely trimmed lawn. Upon the governor’s death in 1774, for a time, the chateau became the property of the chateau´s gardener. Due to a lack of finance, he sold it to an Olomouc canonry, who later, in 1781, sold it to the order of Barnabites, who added a monastery to the chateau. The regular clerics of Saint Paul, as they were also called, had already owned the so-called Velecký courtyard in Šlapanice since 1751, even though their residence was in Vranov, by Brno. This monastic order originally came from France. As soon as the Barnabites bought the chateau, some of them moved from Vranov to Šlapanice. People started calling them “the white priests”, due to their white habits and wide white hats. However, the monastery did not last long, and three years later, in 1784, was canceled by the emperor Josef II. The Barnabites moved back to Vranov. In 1786, Josef baron Ankermüller from Slavkov became the owner. The building was later owned by František Josef Noha, since 1788, and after 1792, by his widow, Josefa Nohová.In 1793 (until 1796), the polish nobleman, Baron František Bereczko, became another owner. The next owners, in 1797, were Jan Flessel and Arnošt Topolanský; after them, from 1807, Imperial Earl Seilern. During the battle of Austerlitz in 1805, it served as a French field army hospital. In 1807, the chateau, together with the adjoining buildings, became the textile factory of Josef Schmal. This German from Württembersk later sold the building to Karel Schöll. Other owners were partners - brothers August and Bedřich Schöll; Kristián Memmert and Jan Reiff. By then, in 1814, the history of The First Brno´s machine-works started, a factory known worldwide. In 1819, a foundry and machine shop was established in the building of the chateau. Soon after another appeared partner – Jindřich Alexandr Luz. In those days, around 60 laborers were employed in the factory. Besides textile machinery, steam engines of such high quality that one of these machines worked for a full 62 years (till 1890) were also made here. There were over 20 steam engines built in this machine factory during its existence in Šlapanice. That was an amount that no other factory in the Austrian empire could boast. In 1836, the factory was moved to Olomoucká Street in Brno, where it still resides.
NKarel Schöll again became the owner of the factory for a while, but after a short time, he sold the entire grounds to the manufacturer Strakoscha from Bučovice. He started producing textiles and ruined whatever else was left to ruin. He had the first floor made into two stories, and also damaged the chapel from the Barnabite order, as well as the masonry decoration on the façade. The devastated chateau and garden were then sold to the manufacturer Löw. The next owner was Leopold Welner and in 1880, the chateau was taken over by the last textile businessman in Šlapanice, Berthold Spitz, who was an art lover. Part of his art collection included a painting depicting the entry gate of his factory by Alois Kalvoda that is currently missing.
In 1898, manufacturing in Spitz´s factory was discontinued due to financial problems. One year later – in 1899 –the mentioned, with all its adjoining buildings, front garden and the park, was bought by the town Šlapanice. The purchase price was 47 000 Austrian coronas, and another 100 000 were necessary for various repairs of the whole object. The walls, framework and roof were left in their original forms.
Since then, the building has served as a school. School classes started after the summer holiday in 1901. Even though floors, windows, and roof tiles were replaced in the early fifties, a general overhaul of the building was again needed. This was finished in 1993 with the expenses reaching CZK 22 million. In 1909, it became the town school for boys, and later mixed. In 1947, music school activity also started, and from 1993, a grammar school has been here. An elementary art school is also in residence here. A few years ago, the attic was reconstructed into usable space, and it currently serves as a ballet hall, language classrooms, and as the classrooms of the elementary art school.
The school pavilion “Děvín”, where the Hvězdička kindergarten was until its relocation to new premises on Masaryk square, currently has specialized classrooms of the grammar school, that were built by the town with funds from the auction of the restaurant Town hall, which was bought by its current renter, Alois Hrabálek, for CZK 183 300, and with cash in the amount CZK 148 200 paid. “Děvín” was ceremoniously opened on October 28, 1933.
Děvín recently went through reconstruction, with new windows, a new façade and, since the summer 2005, a pitched roof.
The agricultural school
This building is situated on Nádražní Street, in house no. 465/58. It was built for a newly founded Agricultural school in Šlapanice. The members of the regional agricultural group of Brno deserve thanks for founding the school and for the construction of the school building: JUDr. Josef Koudela, attorney and member of the provincial parliament in Brno; Antonín Páral, dean and consistory council in Ořechov by Brno; Josef Konečný, provincial member of parliament and the mayor of Troubsko; Václav Zeman, provincial member of parliament and the mayor of Šlapanice. The property was donated by the town of Šlapanice.
The construction was begun at the start of 1899 according to plan of Ing. Dvorzak, and done by a builder Antonín Milar from Šlapanice. On November 5, 1899, the building was ceremoniously blessed by the consistory council and the priest Antonín Páral, and handed over to its purpose. The building’s expenses reached the amount of 18,641 gold pieces, while contributions and donations came up to 13,015 gold pieces. The remaining debt of 5,626 gold pieces was paid with contributions of towns in the region of Brno before the beginning of the year 1902. A principal’s office and two classrooms were in the basement of the school, with a shop and a kitchen in the cellar. In 1912, electric lighting was installed, and a tile sidewalk was built around the school.
During the Second World War, the building sustained only minor damage. For a while, it was used as a hospital for the Russian army. In 1952, teaching was suspended and the building started to deteriorate. Teaching began again in 1958.
A general overhaul of the building was done at the beginning of the sixties. The façade was repaired and windows replaced. The cellar premises were modified into a social-room, school kitchen, lunchroom, and food storage. Was established The principal’s apartment on the first floor was made into a principles office, staffroom, accounting office, and one classroom. In 1962, renovation of attic space into three bedrooms, cabinet, and a linen closet was started. In the same year, work began on establishing a passage connecting Štefanikova and Nádražní streets.
The agricultural school was suspended in 1976, and the building was used as an educational centre by the regional pedagogical institution in Brno.
At the beginning of the nineties, the old building underwent another repair of the façade, making its old-new beauty shine. A parking lot was also built in front of the building during the nineties.
Today, the entire grounds are under the management of the University of T. G. Masaryk in Brno, and it serves as a centre for further education of teachers. Various conferences, seminars, language and other educational courses are held here.
The last reconstruction was undertaken in 2001 and cost 22 million CZK. It included building all of the interior power distribution, the strengthening of floors and ceilings and complete replacement of the rafters and the roof, including insulation. Several classrooms and clubrooms of various sizes and lay-outs are available. A lunchroom and a kitchen equipped with modern technology are in the basement of the building.
The Sokol house
Sokol house has been a very important social, cultural, and sports centre for Šlapanice for more than 80 years. The sports organization Sokol was founded in Šlapanice on May 15, 1892 and, within four years of its foundation, felt the need for its own gym; therefore, in 1896, a team for building the Sokol house was established. The reason for the team was that the local pubs, which were the premises used for exercise and social purposes up until this time, were not sufficient for the growing number of Sokol members, (e.g. almost 200 people in 1910).
When the activity of Sokol was renewed after the First World War, the building preparations started in spring of 1920. Already, one year later, the new building was ready for use, and was ceremoniously opened on August 14, 1921.
One year later, the academic painter Alois Kalvoda, a native of Šlapanice, donated a gift to the organization: a large-sized painting named Human life, signed by his own hand. Till this day it is an ornamental feature of the main hall. This piece of art was then insured in the amount of CZK 180,000.
In 1923, the premises of a pub were established in the basement; in 1929, a bowling room was added and the areas surrounding the Sokol house were landscaped. Because the old cinema hall situated in the basement of the building was already insufficient, in 1937, a new cinema was added, built according a design by Ing. Arch. Müller. Sokol house suffered raids during the Second World War, however, within two years it was again repaired. In 1969, a new façade and renovation of the main entry were completed. Two years later, the addition to the cinema was done, and a separate entrance to the gym was established. Today, the whole building is under the ownership of the Sokol Sports Organization, who has it under their own management. It is situated at Nádražní Street no. 706/87, on the left side, almost at the end, in the direction towards Kobylnice from the center of Šlapanice. It is set more than a meter below street level, and is accessible from the sidewalk by two sets of stairs.
The dominating feature of the original building was its spectacular entrance, framed by four posts that, at the same time, supported the balcony. Its appearance was changed after the cinema addition. It is a two story building, with approximately the first meter up from the ground covered with rock tiles and with “břízolit” stucco above that. The wall facing the street has the original sectional windows.
A small hall and the restaurant premises are located on the ground floor, with the large gym hall above.
Sokol house is surrounded by a small park with a few trees, and has a playground for children, which was only established a few years ago. Directly in front of the main entrance is a small area with a raised stage, where “summer nights” are sometimes held. This area is primarily used by children, as well as providing the space for outside seating for the Sokol house restaurant. When standing in front of the entrance, it is impossible to overlook either the long building on the right or the entrance to the cinema (no longer in use these days). The long building used to serve as a bowling alley with two bowling lanes. Today, after the renovation, it is used as a sheltered area for sitting. Looking up above the entrance is the sight of a stone falcon with wings spread. As the symbol of Sokol (the falcon), it is here to protect the building. It is placed above a balcony, from which are flags are hung for certain occasions.
The main hall with the stage is often used as a gym for various sports and exercising at this time, mainly in the winter. It also serves for cultural purposes: balls, concerts and shows are held here, e.g. by Šlapanice volunteers. The small hall that is part of the restaurant is used for private parties and various celebrations. The restaurant premises on the ground floor of the building underwent full reconstruction in 2008.
Minor building monuments
The crying mother is the name of a monument dedicated to Šlapanice’s soldiers killed in World War I from 1914–1918. The creator is the academic sculptor Joža Kubíček from Slatiny in the Orlické Mountains, and it has 84 names engraved on it. One of them was erased after many years, because this missing soldier, František Fiala, returned into his old country with a wife and a son after the unbelievable time of 42 years. He had been living in the Soviet Union for that whole time. In the war, 30 Šlapanice men were killed, 11 were declared legally dead, and 8 missing. Due to the suffering of war, 8 people died at home and 27 soldiers died abroad. The monument was built in 1924 under the care of The Committee for Building Monuments for Šlapanice’s people killed in the World War, whose chairman was the Russian legionary, Jan Ducháň. Legionaries have an inseparable connection with the First World War. There were 42 citizens of Šlapanice in the Russian legion, 15 in the Italian and 3 in the French.
The grave of Napoleonic soldiers was built at the local cemetery in the sixties of the past century. At the time of the battle of the three emperors, December of 1805, the cemetery did not exist. It was not built until 1832. The tomb stone has a characteristic “N” on it, with the date 2. XII. 1805, as well as the symbolic cannon balls. A common grave for French soldiers that died in the local army hospital was situated in an old graveyard, the so-called Krchůvek. In the mid 19th century, when development was being done over top it, their bones and remains were moved here.
The sculpture of a red army soldier, at the intersection of the streets Brněnská and Čechova, whose creator is the local native academic sculptor Stanislav Hanzl (born 1919), was built in 1948, as a demonstration of thanks to the Red Army that, on April 24, 1945, liberated Šlapanice. During the battles of liberation, 94 red army soldiers and 3 Romanians were killed, and during raids and battles 28 local citizens died.
Žuráň is situated on the border of the land registry with the neighboring town of Podolí. This is the place where, in December 1805, the emperor Napoleon Bonaparte had his main tent. However, this little hill is historically interesting for a much older reason. Several graves from various primeval eras have been found here, along with a mausoleum with a crypt of a Lang bard nobleman, possibly King Wach himself. The first archeological research here was in 1853, with the most recent in 1948, which was carried out by the then young archeologist and later Professor, Josef Poulík, a native from neighboring Jiříkovice. The monument, which originally had a brass map of the battleground, was ceremoniously unveiled in 1930.
The wayside shrine built into the wall of the house at no. 139/6 on Jiříkovická Street signified the old cemetery. This is where the folk name of this location, “Krchůvek”, originated. Soldiers of the Napoleon army who died in local army hospital in 1805 were buried here.
Kalvoda’s tombstone monument was made by the academic sculptor and friend of Kalvoda, Rudolf Březa, a native from nearby Podolí. The landscape painter, Mister Alois Kalvoda, had his family crypt, the place of the last rest, built while still alive, in 1929, according to a design from the architect Bohuslav Fuchs. The monument is a dominant feature of the oldest part of cemetery, and was fully renovated at the expense of the city in the nineties of the past century.
The plague cross is situated beside the road to Jiříkovice, at the intersection towards the ZD Bonagro grounds. It was built at the expense of the couple Karel and Mariana Zeman in 1855, as thanks for averting the plague epidemic.
Spiral of life is the name of the fountain that has been situated on Masaryk square since 1999, when the square was renovated. Its creator is an academic sculptor, Roman Wenzel, and it is made from colored clay. It was built at the expense of the roof tile company, Tondach of Šlapanice.
Saint Florián is recessed into the façade between the upper story windows of the Brno Museum building on Masaryk square, no. 104/18. It is a Baroque stone statue, originating from the time the interior of this building was changed into the Baroque style in the first half of the 18th century.
The sandstone relief plaque is placed on the front of the former scholatiscate over the entrance to the old vicarage on Masaryk square, no. 103/20. It bears the year 1613, and dates to when this building was built. There are three symbols: that of the Olomouc bishopric, the Kroměříž collegiate canonry, and Jan Berg from Berg, who was the Olomouc scholastic at the time of the building’s initial construction.
The conciliation stone in the park, at the intersection of Brněnská and Čechova streets has a cross carved into it. According to legend, this stone supposedly marks the place where executions were carried out during the medieval age.
The conciliation cross that stands beside the entrance to the building of the Brno museum on Masaryk square originally stood on so-called Hraničky, by the Brno road. On it is the image of a sword and unreadable initials, and it was taken to the museum at the time the road was widened. These crosses used to be built by offenders as a part of their punishment, and most come from the 16th and 17th century.
The tomb stone, that is recessed in the façade beside the museum gate on Masaryk square is a reminder of a forgotten tragedy in 1572, when Pavlíček, son of Málka, died. Originally, it stood at the old graveyard by the church but, in 1967, was built into its current place.
Saint Jan on Saint Jan´s square, formerly stood on the nearby bridge across “the little river”, and was mentioned as early as 1831. Nevertheless, it is a much older Baroque statue that was later moved to the center of the square and, after the modification of the intersection in 2002, was moved in front of house no. 127/17.
Saint Florián standing in the park beyond the church, is a Baroque statue of a saint, the protector from fire. Upon the renovation of the square, it was moved here from the so-called Old courtyard, and it originates from the possessions of the former Barnabite monastery, suspended in the last third of the 18th century.
Saint Alois, patron of school children, was moved several times from place to place until he found his post at the intersection of Hřbitovní and Riegrova streets, across from the grammar school building. It was donated to the school youth by the couple Jan and Františka Dušovi in 1886.
The sculpture of the Holy Trinity, that has stood at the intersection of Brněnská and Riegrova streets since 1883 was donated by the couple Josef and Marie Fojtl. In the mid seventies, it was removed, due to reconstruction of the intersection, and in 1998, it was returned, almost to its original place.
Saint Tadeáš has dominated Masaryk square from time immemorial. The date 1819 is on the plinth and the metal railing was added a year later. However, this statue is of a much older date and originates from the Barnabite monastery that was suspended by the emperor Josef II in 1784.
Beside the church staircase, a baroque statue of the most important Czech saint stands Jan of Nepomuck. This statue also originates from the Barnabite monastery. Other sculptures possessed by the Barnabites were transferred to Podolí, and also to Křenová Street in Brno.
On the other side of the church staircase is a stone cross with the year 1750. This is one of the oldest crosses in our city.
The statue of the Ascended Virgin Mary that stands on Masaryk square is from 1884, and was built at the expense of the couple Jan and Mary Sekanina. As one of the only local statues, it is cast from metal.
The cross at the intersection of Brněnská and Sušilova streets is, according to the opinion of specialists, the oldest of its kind in our city. The plaque bearing a sign “Built in 1690, rebuilt in 1949” that was originally a part of it disappeared long ago. This minor sacred structure is composed of three incongruous parts.
The cemetery was built on a hill behind the city in 1832 after the cholera epidemic, when the already old graveyard around the church was no longer sufficient. The main cross, here is from 1850; the second one, the so-called black cross, is from 1915, when the cemetery was expanded. Further expansion of the cemetery took place in the seventies of the past century, when a new ceremonial hall was also built, and further expansion took place in the nineties. The cemetery also has a symbolic grave of those who did not survive the torture of World War II. It was built in 1960 and bears the names of 16 citizens of Šlapanice. The urn contains earthly remains of those from the Mauthausen, Osvětim, and Kounic camps. The reconstruction and rebuilding of the new ceremonial hall was finished in 2006.
The monument dedicated to the French physicians was ceremoniously unveiled for the 200th anniversary of the battle of Austerlitz in 2005. Its creator is a Šlapanice native, sculptor Jaromír Blažek. The monument is situated at the intersection of Brněnská and Riegrova streets, and is a portrayal of the main surgeon of the French army, Jean Dominique Larrey.